Histopolis Place-of-the-Day

Histopolis features a different cemetery, town, county or other place every day on the Place-of-The-Day.

Monday, November 15, 2010

The Histopolis Place-of-the-Day for Monday, November 15, 2010 is the Fort Mitchell National Cemetery in Russell County, Alabama.

"Fort Mitchell is located south of Phenix City in Alabama, adjacent to the state-owned and operated Fort Mitchell Park. The Georgia Militia originally constructed Fort Mitchell in order to sustain a military presence in the area during the Creek War of 1813 to 1814. Shortly after the fort’s completion, the Georgia Militia launched an attack against the British at Tuckabatchie and Hothlewali. The militia was ambushed and driven back to Fort Mitchell by a combined force of Creeks and British. Thereafter, until 1825, a small force continued to garrison at the fort.

"From 1817 to 1825, Fort Mitchell gradually emerged as a center of commerce for trade with Native Americans. In 1817, a trading house, or factory, was established where produced goods were available to local tribes at prices below what they could otherwise afford. In 1818, a post office was added to the newly extended Federal Road that crossed through Fort Mitchell from Augusta, Ga., and westward into the Alabama frontier.

"In 1821, an Indian agency was created at Fort Mitchell, and Colonel John Crowell was appointed agent to the Creeks. While Crowell managed the agency, his brother, Thomas, ran the tavern, which later served as an officer’s quarters.

"Fort Mitchell became central to the protection of Native Americans as settlers consistently violated the Creek territory as defined under terms of the 1814 Treaty of Fort Jackson. In response to Native American protests, a new fort was constructed and occupied by the 4th U.S. Infantry in summer 1825, and it remained garrisoned almost continually through 1840. The second fort encompassed the first, and while much larger, was similar in design.

"In 1831, a group of white settlers invaded the Indian community of Ola Ufalal (now Eufaula), evicted the Creeks, burned their houses, and built their own settlement. The U.S. marshal protested the settlers’ actions, and when defied, the commandant at Fort Mitchell dispatched a company to demand the surrender and evacuation of the town. The residents complied and retreated across the Chattahoochee River.

"President Andrew Jackson was committed to a policy of removing Native Americans, however, and was not eager to use force against settlers who were supported by the laws of Georgia and Alabama. For every ejection of a trespasser evacuated by troops at Fort Mitchell, 10 intruders would cross the river and enter Creek territory.

"The hopelessness of the military’s position was reflected in the celebrated Hardeman Owen killing. Owen had planned but failed to murder the U.S. marshal. Troops at Fort Mitchell were called out to capture Owen, and in the ensuing melee he was killed. Georgia authorities charged the trooper who fired the fatal shot with murder and demanded the Army hand him over. The commandant refused. Tensions ran high and almost erupted into open warfare. In an attempt to settle the dispute, Francis Scott Key was dispatched by the administration to investigate the affair. He took up residence at Fort Mitchell and composed a report on the condition of the Creeks and the cause of the recent turmoil. He charged that the evils perpetrated on the Native Americans were caused by the weakness of the U.S. government in facing the aggressive actions of the settlers. Key went on to negotiate a settlement, which, after he returned to Washington, was rarely honored.

"Creek desperation reached a crisis point in spring 1836. Under the leadership of Chief Eneah-Mathla, an estimated 1,500 warriors attacked the settlements. General Winfield Scott was ordered to intervene and succeeded in overcoming the attack. By July 1836, an estimated 1,600 Creek people were concentrated at Fort Mitchell in preparation for a forced expulsion West. Approximately 2,000 to 3,000 were eventually marched from Fort Mitchell to Montgomery, “shedding tears and making the most bitter wailings.” This route is known as the Trail of Tears.

"In late 1980s, the old post cemetery at Fort Mitchell was officially identified as the location for a national cemetery in Federal Region IV, to serve veterans residing in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee and Mississippi. In May 1987, the 280-acre national cemetery opened."

Explore Fort Mitchell National Cemetery on Histopolis now. If you have a place that you would like to see featured as the Histopolis Place-of-the-Day, contact the webmaster to suggest it.

November 2010

1Riverside National Cemetery, Riverside County, California
2Quincy National Cemetery, Quincy, Quincy Township, Adams County, Illinois
3Fort Custer National Cemetery, Ross Township, Kalamazoo County, Michigan
4Finns Point National Cemetery, Pennsville Township, Salem County, New Jersey
5Fort McPherson National Cemetery, Maxwell Precinct, Lincoln County, Nebraska
6Wood National Cemetery, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin
7Mound City National Cemetery, Mound City Precinct, Pulaski County, Illinois
8West Virginia National Cemetery, Taylor County, West Virginia
9Lebanon National Cemetery, Lebanon, Marion County, Kentucky
10Rock Island National Cemetery, Moline Township, Rock Island County, Illinois
11Little Rock National Cemetery, Little Rock, Big Rock Township, Pulaski County, Arkansas
12San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery, Merced County, California
13Marion National Cemetery, Marion, Center Township, Grant County, Indiana
14Port Hudson National Cemetery, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana
15Fort Mitchell National Cemetery, Russell County, Alabama
16Mill Springs National Cemetery, Pulaski County, Kentucky
17Springfield National Cemetery, Springfield, Springfield Township, Greene County, Missouri
18Saint Augustine National Cemetery, Saint Augustine, Saint Johns County, Florida
19Confederate Cemetery, Alton, Alton Township, Madison County, Illinois
20Staunton National Cemetery, Staunton, Staunton City, Virginia
21Soldiers' Lot, Woodland Cemetery, Mound City, Mound City Township, Linn County, Kansas
22Soldiers' Lot, Baxter Springs Cemetery, Spring Valley Township, Cherokee County, Kansas
23Puerto Rico National Cemetery, Bayamón, Hato Tejas Barrio, Bayamón Municipio, Puerto Rico
24Los Angeles National Cemetery, Los Angeles County, California
25Memphis National Cemetery, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee
26Grafton National Cemetery, Grafton, Taylor County, West Virginia
27Crown Hill Confederate Plot, Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana
28Soldiers' Lot, Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Augusta, Kennebec County, Maine
29Fort Bliss National Cemetery, El Paso County, Texas
30Congressional Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia



Note: The first Place-of-the-Day was in September 2010